The united nations warn against excessive use of biosprit
BioEnergy offers opportunities to develop and reduce greenhouse gases, but can also drive for deforestation, hunger and expulsion of small farmers
UN-ENERGY) has presented the most comprehensive study on bioenergy. In it, the United Nations describes the development opportunities that lie for remote areas in the use of bioenergy and the coarse threats emanating from the excessive use of food plants to produce biosprit. Although the outset of greenhouse gases could be reduced, but for that there was rough dangers: Deforestation of the rainforder, decline of biodiversity, leaching and erosion of the ground, famine due to rising staple food prices and the expulsion of small farmers. However, so the UN experts, KONNE provided for responsible use in poor rural zones, provided cheap energy, which are created by local agriculture and creating workplaces.
Now the UN has also been partly involved in the broad front, which criticize the massive cultivation of food for producing so-called biofuels (biofuel and fear of rising beer prices) or their environmental friendliness doubt (ill by biosprit). In the study entitled Sustainabel Bioenergy: A Framework for Decision Makers examined the UN experts on 64 pages the effects that can have the stronger use of bioenergy.
The report is particularly dedicated to the biofuels, a market that has grown like no other in recent years: "The global production of biofuels was doubled in the last five years and will almost double in the next four years". Responsible is that in addition to Brazil, the USA and China, the previously large biosprither, many more Lander initiatives for use and production of biofuels had started.
The report also sees a chance for the development underdeveloped Lander, who now also suffered sharply among the high olps. He has been moving at a high level for years. Quoted the Senegalese Prasident Abdoulaye Wade, who as the African Olcr as "catastrophe" designated, "which can cause the efforts to get poverty and the demand of an economic development for years". In part, poor Lander now turned six times as much money for the import of OL when they spend their health care system, the report determines.
Bioenergy is a possibility to reduce the dependence from the OL in developing policies
Here, bioenergy offer a chance to reduce the dependence of OL and at the same time stabilize or lower the price of OLD. Many of the poor Lander were also in tropical zones in which the cultivation of plants to produce bioethanol or biodiesel is very favorable. The agricultural activity can be so excited and thus would be accompanied by that money, which floss to buy fuel abroad, can now come to the local agriculture and manufactory too good. The strong generally the economy and schoff workplaces.
The production of biofuels offer the possibility of energy generation in small and medium units and at the level of villages. The development of a new bioenergy industry can thus bring 1.6 billion people to bring electric power to electric power and contribute to 2.4 billion that they are not dependent on wood, crap or straw as fuel alone. Thus Konne also the "Cake killer" be countered. Armedized smoke when cooking on open fire pets in the house is one of the common ground for illness and death of women in developing. Millions of people could receive a clean energy that are hitherto cut off by the energy supply.
"Modern bioenergy makes it possible to provide cheaper and more energy for remote zones and thus it can help increase agriculture productivity and other sectors, which can lead to positive implications of access to food", said the Prasident of UN Energy Mats Karlsson in the presentation of the report. Set to a high involvement of local producers: "One thing is clear: the more farmers involved in the production, processing and the use of biofuels, the great ways are the possibilities for the distribution of profits", it’s in the study.
Prices for staple food can rise
However, Gustavo Brest, Viceprasident of UN Energy and Coordinator for Energies of the UN Organization for Energy and Agriculture (FAO) warns that the excessive extraction of biosprit from food plants rough dangers for the poor population mountains. The prices for staple foods are increasing and that will "have negative economic and social effects, especially on poor people who spend a coarse portion of their income for food". They could even be in the high rapidly when massively cultivated, water and other production agents are used for the production of liquid fuel, instead of dedicating the cultivation of food.
A price increase for staple foods such as sugar and corn should already be observed. "While this is profitable for the manufacturers, but very negative for consumers", Best said in an interview. The study therefore warns: "The production of biofuels was able to harm the availability of a reasonable food reservation". The price prere is one of the large threats in the context of biosprit production, which the decision makers had to observe carefully. The high corn price has already made problems in Mexico and Colombia. The poor population can hardly afford their tortilla because rough amounts of corn in the US are now being processed into bioethanol (tortilla crisis in Mexico). The political decision-makers "Measures have to ensure that the security of supply with food has prioritat", underlines the document.
Bioprit and environmental damage
The increasing cultivation of plants for the production of biofuels carries even more dangers. Thus, it is mentioned that tropical rainwalder will be picked up in Sudostasien to satisfy the increasing demand for Palmol. Monocultures instead of rainwalder did not only lead to a rude variety of biodiversity, erosion and a leaching of the soil, but also the danger that small farmers were increasingly being expelled from their leaches to provide coarse plantations space. The concentration process is already observed in the US and Brazil. It could come to a similar process as he show himself in the grain trade. According to the study, Cargill and Archer Daniels Midland controlled the half of the world grain trade.
If Walder is cleared, the fundamental to accommodate the greenhouse gas CO2, so that space is created for energy crops, the emissions of greenhouse gases were even more high than in the burning of fossil fuels, is warned. In some cases, the cultivated social and ecological damage retracted the advantages associated with the production of biofuels. This is even if it was taken to protect threatened land, social land use secured and the development of bioenergy is operated in a sustainable direction, is emphasized. Therefore, so the resumee, is bioenergy "In some cases really sustainable, while in other cases is very destructive". The economic, ecological and social impacts had to be examined very precisely before their importation and the speed of their development is decided, the experts advise.
It should also be noted that the cultivation of plants should be avoided, which require a high contribution of fossil energy in the form of dungemittels, pesticides and water. Therefore, the use of native and adapted to the respective circumstances plants to be preferred. Also avoiding the cultivation of energy plants on little profitable soil, which also requires a lot of workload and thus again energy. In this context, the reduction of trade barriers, subsidies and customs barriers is required.
Ultimately, the study, the current investigations come to the conclusion that the transformation of energy crops in fuel for transport is useful, but the conversion of biomass to produce gas, warm and electricity. "This is the best option to reduce the greenhouse gases in the next decade and also the cheapest", Fast Gustavo Best the result of the study together. This use of biomass also drove that no methane was handed out as its natural composting, a 21x strong greenhouse gas. Only the second generation of biofuels, which needed a higher use of capital, could reduce the existing competition between food and fuel when whole plants are utilized and thus enormously increased efficiency. Demonstration plants already gave it for different processes in Germany and Canada. By 2015, these technologies should be commercially usable, hope the researchers in the study.